Charles Hopkins


Every Web Designer Should Be Able To Do This In Their Sleep

When it comes to website design, several skills evolve and change from time to time. However, there will always be rules that don’t need changing. Are you a dedicated web designer? Below are some of the things that you should be able to accomplish on autopilot.

1. Sketch with Confidence

By sketching, you can help your clients visualize their website goals. You don’t need to be top-notch creative or artist overnight to do this. By just sketching with confidence, you can establish a connection between you and your clients that will help achieve effective results.

2. Utilize a Common Framework

10 Things That Should Be Done By Web DesignerAll web developers use frameworks to start their projects. If you are handing over a website to a client, a framework will make it easier to make updates, and maintain it in the long run.

3. Package and Backup Files

You should understand how to backup your website, and restore it, whenever necessary. This can prevent the loss of important data, just in case something bad happens to your website. Moreover, it is important to learn how to make package files for site styles.

4. Know the 3 Trends, and How to Utilize Them

If you really want your website to be a success, you need to create it based on the latest trends. Stay up-to-date with the latest techniques in the website design industry. How can you apply these in your website’s design?

5. Explain Design Theory

What are the components that you should focus on when creating websites? Balance, spacing, proportion, flow and color. Focus on design theory. What are the things that contribute to a well-balanced design?

6. Code with CSS and HTML

You need to understand the most basic programming languages behind every web design. Learn how to troubleshoot, edit and read basic HTML and CSS languages. These skills can serve you properly in the long run.

7. Edit Images

All successful websites have great images. As a website designer, you should also know how to edit and manipulate images. From sizing to cropping, you should be able to work around images with absolute ease.

10 Things That Should Be Done By Web Designer8. Make a Print

Your job may be in the digital landscape, but at some point, you will need to print some materials. From business cards and press releases to fliers, you should be able to convert and build elements efficiently.

9. Write Headlines

Write your headlines well. These simple words can help your clients understand how much space is still available for text.

10. Navigate a Website Through Any Device

Experiment with various browsers. When taking on a web design project, you should be able to browse the web pages in any kind of gadget efficiently.

Retina In Sensing The Light

Last June 2014, they distributed about the developing the most mature retina from the induced human pluripotent stem cells and the vitro product could create a functional photoreceptor cells. Specialists have stepped toward making a useful human retina in their laboratory. They are incorporating photoreceptors with essential cilia and parts of the inward section structure, and can be created in culture from iPSCs or what we called the induced pluripotent stem cells.

The Light-Sensing RetinaThe significant development here is the capacity to make retinal cells that can react to light and forms into being surprisingly the proper orientation.

The smaller than normal human retinal tissue could form the external section circles that are basic for light-detecting and contained every one of the seven retinal cell types, including the 4 types of photoreceptor cells that express opsins.

This is a delightfully performed set of tests to demonstrate that human induced pluripotent stem cells are fit for forming the retinal cells that pursue the normal formative time course. The significant exercises that stem cells really considers are driving us towards is that there are natural guidelines inside the stem cells to build tissue.

The Light-Sensing RetinaThat retinal photoreceptor tissue can be created in the laboratory that analysts might have the capacity to use these tissues for regenerative medicinal applications. At present, clinical trials are trying to figure it out if the retinal-pigmented epithelial cells can developed from human stem cells and can be transplanted into retinal degeneration for enhancing or to locate. This is an incredible system that will enable us to understand these retinal ailments and creating medications.



Social media agency  has changed the manner in which brands work together, yet as of now, those strategies have changed. Before all else, each post had the opportunity to achieve a critical bit of adherents to your page, for nothing.

A constant flow of new content on your page would bring a constant flow of new likes and new potential customers. You could put a little spend behind your presents on the off chance that you needed to lift your crowd, yet you didn’t require a social budget to see huge outcomes. Circumstances are different.

Presently, promoting on social takes a more cautious and determined way to deal with utilize your marketing budget adequately and achieve your customers.

Spending on social is presently a need

Organizations used to spend on social sporadically, however now social spend ought to be worked into your general marketing budget. Spending on social media marketing is the new standard.

Fortunately, spending on social has turned out to be to a greater degree a science, and less a “splash and implore” issue, as previously. Explicit budgets can yield explicit, quantifiable dimensions of presentation. Be sure about what social media channel(s) your current or potential customers utilize and utilize your promotion dollars to help catch that group of onlookers.

Set a marketing budget for both your business and every one of your customers. When you have arranged your spend limits, begin arranging which groups of onlookers you will focus on social. The more explicit you can be, the better.

Drive customers to an explicit activity

Contacting groups of onlookers on social can be compelling for spreading brand mindfulness for your business, however, it’s not the entire amusement. When you’re designing efforts for social media, it’s useful to think about the explicit activity that you need these potential customers to take. Much the same as picking gatherings of people, specific should as much as possible.

Purchasing items or booking administrations is the most evident activity you may need customers to take, yet it’s not alone. It likewise might be the minimum productive for your gathering of people, and in this way, the most costly to target.

You’ll need to explore different avenues regarding your informing to make sense of what works best, yet an alternate activity, for example, agreeing to accept an email rundown or visiting your blog, might be less demanding (and less expensive) to accomplish.

Market to your customers, not just any customers

Each business needs most extreme presentation, however burning through cash to achieve everybody isn’t reasonable or productive. A few people are essentially less slanted to purchase from your business. They may have effectively tackled the issue your administration satisfies, might not have an intrigue, or there might be different components representing a mark against you.

There’s no compelling reason to freeze – there are still a lot of individuals out there simply holding up to get notification from you so they can make a buy. These are your customers. Your business ought to focus on these explicit groups of onlookers that are bound to end up your customers. To begin, think about your best customers, at that point make gatherings of people that mirror their attributes.

Begin considering conceivable gatherings of people for your business

Here are a few instances of focusing on explicit gatherings of people:

Directed: $2 every day – on a couple of posts – focusing on females matured 28 to 68 in the more noteworthy Houston territory that rundown online adornments partners or retailers in their profile. The objective: a brisk offer of downloadable social media marketing best practices, explicitly customized to online gems retail businesses.

Habitually Targeted: $10 a post – posting no less than three times each week-focused at Friends and Friends of Friends. The objective: expanded introduction and expanded shot of procurement or suggestion of your marketing administrations or bundles.

Explicit Targeted: $100 for 10 days – on an erratic post advancing your talking commitment – focusing on guys and females matured 24 to 64 in the north Atlanta region that are individuals from Chambers of Commerce and rundown marketing as a diversion or calling. The objective: picking up participants at your Constant Contact Partner’s marketing workshop.

With respect to where to target customers, Facebook is tremendous. Since the stage has extended all around the globe, you can target customers utilizing the most extravagant statistic data accessible to your business. For as meager a $1 or $2 every day, you can achieve a portion of these model gatherings of people:

  •    People who like your page.
  •    Friends of People who like your page.
  •    Choose a ZIP or city. As a nearby business focusing on other neighborhood businesses, this is an incredible asset. Get the hang of Facebook statistic decisions and you’ll take advantage of your marketing.
  •    Emails into Facebook. You can transfer messages into Facebook. Facebook will discover the greatest number of your email contacts as it precisely can.

Try not to be hesitant to spend and analyze

Try not to consider social media as a dark gap that you toss cash into and plan to get some new likes once in a while. Social media marketing has now turned into a vital science, one that you can use further bolstering your advantage in case you’re willing to go for broke and explore.

Much the same as email marketing and some other type of publicizing, social media marketing is an investigation. This huge sandbox of preferences and adherents will enable you to test distinctive informing and crusades to perceive what works best for your gathering of people of potential customers.

Since the universe of social moves so quick, these trials will give you a chance to develop and adjust rapidly, advising your general marketing outside of social to wind up increasingly successful.

To begin, begin little and spotlight on developing after you’ve seen positive outcomes or patterns. You don’t need a major budget on social to see a major effect. The more explicit you can be with your focusing on and your coveted activity, the less you’ll have to spend to begin getting results. You’ll be burning through cash, truly, yet you should similarly as quick observe critical profits for your venture.

SEO Tools 101: How to Use Majestic SEO’s Trust Flow Metric

Have tried exploring the SEO Trust Flow of Majestic? This is one of the most reliable SEO tools that had been practiced by others seo firm and you can use it today. In this article, you will know how to utilize this metric for competitor analysis, link prospecting and link audits.

Why Should You Trust Flow is King?

There is a possibility that Google will never update PageRank ever again. It is a highly dependable metric. However, we can no longer use it. It is reliable, but it cannot match Trust Flow’s accuracy.

What is Trust Flow?

Trust Flow is a reliable metric by Majestic, and is weighted by the amount of clicks from a set of credible websites to a given domain or URL. It identifies the score depending on the traffic flowing through certain links and link site relevancy.

Competitor Analysis

Trust Flow can be used to go through the competitor link profiles. By using this, you can see which links are worth acquiring. But of course, before analyzing the links of your competitors, you need to make sure that they have relevant links.

How to Use Majestic SEOPenalty Recovery: Link Audits

Utilizing Trust Flow is an efficient approach to determine toxic links during penalty recovery and link audit processes.

When auditing, always begin with those links that are irrelevant. Then, go to the links which have low or zero trust flow.

The links that you will find in this process will be removed, and disavowed.

Link Prospecting

Trust Flow is a great metric for assessing prospective link opportunities. You can also use this for directories, guest posts, forums, resource lists, expired domains and more.

Are you looking for guest blog opportunities? Then, toss the websites to the “bulk backlinks” option. Afterwards, you will have an entire directory to check. Which ones are worth submitting your website to?

Bot Blocking

Trust Flow and Majestic are not always 100 percent reliable. Those people who are utilizing blog networks can block Majestic from crawling their webpages. This only means that, if you are analyzing your competitors, you won’t be able to view the links.

How to Use Majestic SEOPBN Deindexing equates to Irrelevant Topical Trust Flow

This has been proven and tested. The number one factor that can get private blog networks deindexed is when its outbound links and content fail to match the domain’s trust flow. Google is not utilizing the metric of Majestic. What they are using is relevancy as an approach to eliminating networks.

Tips for Intraday Trading Beginners

Intraday trading is the act of trading stocks or shares based on the technical and derivative data points where the entry and exit positions are entered and exited on the same trading day, respectively.

Do note that the stock exchanges are only active during 9:30 AM until 4 PM in the afternoon. During this time, you make suitable trades that will rake you some good money as one of the option trading ideas.

However, how can you be successful in intraday trading? Here are some tips:

1. Look at the Buying/Selling Prices

Great Intraday Trading Tips for BeginnersWhenever you trade, especially if you’re going for intraday trading, it is best that you look at the buying/selling prices. General stock market rules apply. You want to buy shares for cheap and sell them for a higher price for profit.

Since you’re going to be entering and exiting the same day, this means that you work your power of prediction and only get those shares that you assume will increase in prices before the trading day ends.

Take, for instance, the Reliance Industries Limited. The current stock price for buying it is 1118 Indian Rupees and the sale price is 1128. Typically, this is a good trade since you’re earning an additional 10 Rupees per stock.

2. Create a Stop/Loss Target

One amazing way to hedge your assets from severe loss is to create a Stop/Loss or Limit Option. This is where you set a maximum ceiling on how much you’re willing to spend on a particular share so that you won’t lose a lot of money.

This is a perfect tool, especially for beginner intraday traders. For instance, Tech Mahindra Limited has its shares currently priced at 723 and some people expect its price to be 728 by the end of the day. You could set a stop-loss price of 717 so that in the event that your prediction is wrong and the share price has dropped instead of increasing, then, at least, you will only be losing 6 Rupees from the original price that you bought the shares.

3. Set a Target

Great Intraday Trading Tips for BeginnersLastly, you want to set a maximum target for your trades. This is so that you’re not selling your stocks at exorbitant prices, making people not want to trade with you.

For example, Colgate Palmolive Limited in India has its price currently set at 1140. You could set a target at 1168 because it is still within the realm of a good trade since the price is not at all too farfetched.

Again, intraday trading is all about making profits and making multiple trades per day, ensuring that you’re earning money on each trade.

Now, that being said, you also have to take note that it is not all the time that you win trades. In fact, statistics show that you only win 50-60% of all of your trades realistically speaking. Therefore, although you can earn money on each trade, you should also know that there are times that you’re losing money as well.

There are a lot of mobile users than the desktop users. Businesses must and have understood the need to viably utilize mobile channels for drawing in clients. They have begun new activities through mobile sites and mobile applications. While businesses with vast wallets can bear to use both mobile sites and applications, different businesses may need to pick one of them. The decision between mobile applications and sites relies upon their cost, ease of use, required highlights and the group of onlookers they serve.

Also, there are different reasons that improve mobile applications than mobile sites based on the mobile app development.

Offer Better Personalization

Personalization is tied in with offering custom-made correspondence to clients dependent on their interests, area, use conduct, and that’s just the beginning. With mobile applications, it’s anything but difficult to treat clients with a customized involvement. Applications can likewise track and watch client commitment, and utilize it to offer custom suggestions and updates to the clients. Besides, they can likewise distinguish area of the clients continuously to give topography particular substance. Nonetheless, enhancing customer experience isn’t the main reason that personalization serves.

Sending Notifications & Updates

For the most recent few decades, email has been the most generally used business to specialize device. Organizations have broadly utilized email to connect with their clients. Accordingly, email has lost the adequacy it once had; its open rates and snap rates have always dropped.

The warnings are of two kinds: push and in-application notification. They both are energizing options for speaking with application clients in a less nosy way. It’s implied that you need to design your notification efforts sensibly.

  1. In-application notifications are the notices which clients can just get when they have opened an application.
  2. Push notification, then again, are those notices which clients can get paying little mind to any action they are doing on their cell phone.

Mobile Device Features

Mobile applications have the upside of using highlights of a cell phone like camera, contact list, GPS, telephone calls, accelero-meter, compass, and so on. Such gadget highlights, when utilized inside an application, can make the client encounter intelligent and fun. Additionally, these highlights can likewise diminish the endeavors clients would need to make generally.

Work Offline

It is likely the most principal distinction between a mobile site and an application. In spite of the fact that applications too may require web availability to perform the vast majority of their assignments, they can at present offer essential substance and usefulness to clients in offline mode. The application can give highlights like assessment figuring, portion computation, and assurance of credit limit. These highlights can work even without the assistance of a web association.


Mobile sites need to depend a considerable measure on programs to perform even the most rudimentary capacities. Mobile sites rely upon program highlights like ‘back catch,’ ‘revive catch,’ and ‘address bar’ to work.

While Mobile Apps don’t have any of these limitations. A mobile application can be structured with a great deal of expand capacities, in view of cutting edge motions like ‘tap,’ ‘swipe,’ ‘drag,’ ‘squeeze,’ ‘hold,’ and the sky is the limit from there. Applications can use these motions to offer imaginative usefulness that can enable clients to play out an errand better.

They Spend More Time on Applications

A point to consider here is that clients invest a dominant part of their energy in gaming applications and web based life applications. People nowadays are more practical in a way that finding an easiest way to do like what mobile applications can do.

Brand Presence

Clients spend a generous measure of their time on cellphones. It’s sheltered to state that huge numbers of the clients experience the applications they’ve introduced on their gadgets, consistently. This standard experience can be seen as a marking open door for the applications.

Notwithstanding when clients are not effectively utilizing a mobile application, they are still helped to remember the brand related with the application. The symbol of the application demonstrations like a smaller than normal promotion for the brand.

Work Faster

An all around planned mobile application can perform activities a lot speedier than a mobile site. Applications for the most part store their information locally on cell phones, as opposed to sites that for the most part utilize web servers. Thus, information recovery happens quickly in mobile applications. Applications can additionally spare clients’ time by putting away their inclinations, and utilizing them to take proactive activities for clients’ sake.

Do you want widen your knowledge on search engine optimization, and advance your career in this profession? Then, you might want to consider getting certified in this field.

What which one is the right certification for you? Surely, there are plenty to choose from, but choosing the correct one may be challenging. Certifications are not always required for SEO positions especially for the seo expert in Malaysia, though acquiring one may become useful in some circumstances.

Below are some important information you must know when it comes to search engine optimization certifications.

What is the purpose of SEO certifications?

Getting a certification in SEO can serve various purposes. Earning one can help you back up your career claims. As you know, in the SEO landscape, several professionals are self-taught. Of course, you would want employers to notice you, and being certified is one of the most effective ways to get their attention. Moreover, getting certified can help you complete some gaps in your resume. Certainly, reputable companies prefer to hire individuals who have specific qualifications.

Can certifications and courses make you proficient in the field?

It’s true that search engine optimization courses can be very useful. However, if you are only a novice or a professional with intermediate SEO knowledge, it wouldn’t make you an expert. These certifications can teach you technical knowledge and principles, but it can’t orient you with hands-on tasks. Keep in mind that SEO expertise comes from tons of hands-on work. You can consider SEO certifications as good starting points to a promising digital career.

List of SEO Courses and Certifications

1.Free Inbound Certification Course – HubSpot (Free)

Do you want to earn an SEO certification without a huge financial commitment? This free course is a good start for you. It allows you to take 12 classes on several inbound marketing  aspects, and then accomplish a 60-question exam.

2.SEO Training Course – Moz (Free)

If you want to learn more about search engine optimization, this Udemy crash course is another good option. It is an efficient video-based course that you can invest in without a huge time commitment.

3.Certifications and Certificates – Data and Marketing Association ($1,049)

This association offers various certification programs. Do you want an introductory course in the digital marketing field? Then, this one may be the one you are looking for. These courses are not very comprehensive, but it can help you introduce yourself to certain marketing aspects.

4.SEO Certificate – Online Marketing Institute ($25 every month)

This SEO certification course is composed of 14 lessons on several parts of SEO. Finishing this course successfully allows you to get a completion certificate.

5.SEO Courses – DistilledU ($33 every month)

Are you determined to learn SEO from scratch? Then, DistilledU can assist you in achieving this goal. By paying a subscription fee monthly, you can gain access to several hours of video content on search engine optimization, from the most basic details to the most advanced topics.

6.Advanced SEO Certification Training –  MarketMotive ($299)

This SEO course provides many hours of video content that you can watch anytime you want. With several hours of video and 15 projects, you can apply your new SEO knowledge right away.

7.Courses and Certifications – Search Engine College ($99)

This provides a wide range of certifications and courses that will help you learn quality SEO techniques.

8.SEO Certificate – University of California at Irvine ($3,538)

Do you want to put on serious weight to your SEO training? Then, consider getting a certificate from a reputable educational institution. This particular course provides online courses and SEO certificates.

Web design industry is constantly changing, and we can’t wait to experience the trends in store for 2019. 2017 opened the doors for minimalism. 2018 saw the prevalence of bold typefaces. What do you think about the custom website design in Malaysia which are the trends in store for us this 2019? Here is a list of trends you should watch out for.

1.Vibrant Colors

The year of pastel is over—it’s time for the big comeback of vibrant colors. In 2019, there is no room left for subdued color schemes. This year will be all about character, personality and contrast.

It’s no secret that color can make a crucial impact in our brains, behaviors and perceptions. They can make us feel alive, excited and awake. Bright colors can always make you feel engaged, spark your energy and motivate you.

Plan your website with lots of colors in mind. By the time your visitors leave, they can forget all the written information, but colors can help them remember what they feel.

2.Bold Typefaces

2019 is welcoming bold typefaces with open arms. Large letters invite us to read powerful headlines with lots of whitespaces. Bold typefaces are not just pleasing aesthetically, they can also impact reading comprehension, user perception and reading speed in a positive manner. Clearly, they are a statement.

3.Mastering Mobile Design

80 percent of internet users browse websites and social media through their mobile phones. At this day and age, web designers should be able to master mobile design. How can they sustain efficient navigation and functionality of web content? They should continuously look for ways to improve browsing experiences on smaller devices. That’s key challenge for professionals this 2019.

4.Micro-interactions are getting more subtle

Micro-interactions are getting more and more interesting as the years progress. They allow website visitors to interact with an application or software using little sounds and gestures.

Each time a user syncs data on devices, changes settings, sets an alarm, picks a password and logs in, he or she is engaging with a micro-interaction. They may seem forgettable and dull at first, but trust me, they are engaging and pleasurable.

Micro-interactions are fun and addictive. For some professionals they add a human touch to some tasks, encouraging users to interact more with the platform and software.

5.Visual Storytelling:

This coming year is the year of videos. This 2019, visual storytelling will become even more vital to websites and social media platforms. Videos will become even more personal—audiences will continue to love materials that tickle their emotions. To be able to come up with an attention-grabbing web layout, web designers should be able to master the art of visual storytelling. After all, websites are not only simple pages, they should tell captivating stories.


SGV will find its way to the top this 2019. Dynamic SGVs are used in website headers and navigation menus, so expect to see more of this in the coming months. Of course, designers would love to improve interfaces without losing the page’s functionality.


We are creatures of habit. When we meeting and event planning , we usually go to the places that we’re familiar with. Although it can be quite easy to host events in venues that we already know, it is still best that you think outside of the box from time to time.

This is to ensure that your events are going to be fun while also giving an entirely new experience as well. If you’re thinking of planning an out of town event, then here are some steps that will ensure the success of the upcoming occasion:

1. Research

Since you’re going to choose an unfamiliar venue for your next event, the most logical thing that you can do is conduct a thorough research about the possible places you can go to.

Utilize the power of the internet for this. Most of the huge venues already have a website ready so that you can find out more about the place.

Furthermore, there are certain aggregate apps that collect information about some hotels and great function rooms in your area so that you can host your next convention or conference, for example.

2. Think If You’re Going to Hire Local or Outside Artists

You’re going to hire some performers in your event or a keynote speaker perhaps. Decide if you want to hire some locals or if you want to hire your usual picks.

Think of their pros and cons. You might think that hiring your out of town artists, performers, or speakers are good since you already know them, but you have to take note that because you’re in a new place, the cost of transportation might be too expensive for your current budget.

On the flip side, you might be reluctant to hire local performers since you do not know their track record. However, it can be cost-effective since you do not really have to spend a lot of money on transport. So, weigh the pros and cons so that you can decide which option you would choose.

3. Manage Bookings in Advance

If you think that planning an event locally is hard, try organizing one in an unfamiliar venue and faraway venue. There are so many things that you have to think about- one of which is the bookings of your guests and performers.

If you hire outside entertainment for your event, you have to make sure that you book their flights in advance to help you save money.

You also have to reserve some rooms for them as well since big events typically attract a lot of attendees and there might be no more accommodations if you book them late. You also want to provide for the transport services of your guests, so be sure to book the cars or carpooling services weeks before they arrive so that you can plan things accordingly.

4. Give a Little Time Allowance

Traveling to a new place would mean that you require more time to get to the venue. Going to an unfamiliar place requires people to get acquainted with it and it can take some time.

Furthermore, the traffic there might be worse than your area, so be sure to give your guests a little bit more time allowance to get to the destination.

5. A Perfect Time to Adapt

Organizing an event in an unfamiliar venue will raise some questions from your team. Be patient when it comes to their queries and concerns as this will help mold your character and so that you can become a better event organizer in the future.

Adapting to new things and thinking outside the box is already a bold feat and if you can manage to make the event successful, you’re going to be even more proud of yourself.

Currency has a lot of academic theories around it. Parity condition is the main theory for economics in the forex. Parity condition explains the exchange price between two currencies that is based on factors like interest rates and inflation. Below are the other economic theories:

Major Theories

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

This theory states that after exchange rate adjustments, the price levels should be equal between two countries. The law of one price is the base of this theory where the price of a product should be the same around the world. Opportunity for arbitrage happens when a product has a large difference in cost between two products.

Interest Rate Parity (IRP)

Similar to PPP, it states that to remove arbitrage, similar interest rates should be constant in similar assets from two separate countries, while the risk is similar to each other.

International Fisher Effect (IFE)

This theory is about the appreciation of exchange rates between two countries based on the difference of their nominal interest rates.

Balance of Payment Theory

This theory focuses on accounts dealing with tangible good trades for the exchange rate directions. This measures the current and capital account of a country for the capital, inflow and outflow of a country.

Real Interest Rate Differentiation Model

This theory shows that the currency of a country with high real interest rate will appreciate against a country with low interest rates. This occurs as investors move money to a country with high real rates to gain high returns.

Asset Market Model

This model focuses on the money flow due to foreign investors purchasing assets like bonds or stocks. There will be an increase in currency price of a country if large amounts of foreign investors come in, as they would be required to purchase domestic currency of that country.

Monetary Model

This looks at the monetary policy of a country to determine the exchange rate. The monetary policy of a country handles the supply of money that is determined by the number of printed money by the treasury and the interest rate by the central bank.

Economic Data

Countries are considered as large companies. Information and news about a country can impact its currency just like how current event,financial news and currency news trading can affect the stock price of a company. In forex, it is best to understand economic indicators to see the influences in the market.

Employment Data

These are the data pertaining to the number of people employed within a country or economy, usually released by most countries. A prosperous economy in a country can be seen in their strong employment growth and vice versa, though inflation can also occur with high employment.

Interest Rates

These are the rates dictated by the central bank and are a big focus of those participating in the market as it is used to initiate the monetary policies of a country and adjust monetary supply.


This is the measure of the rise and fall of the level of prices over time. Inflation, which is the increase of prices, signifies the depreciation of currency in a country.

Gross Domestic Product

This is the measure of a country’s generated services and finished products over a period of time. GDP is used by foreign investors to measure the economic growth of a country. Investors are enticed with a country’s healthy economy.

Retail Sales

This is the reflection of consumer spending, measuring retail sales over a certain period. Increased spending in a country signifies that the economy is strong.

Durable Goods

These are long term goods that are requested and shipped measured over duration. The spending of individuals here indicates a healthy factory sector.

Trade and Capital Flows

The data from trade flow focuses on the import and export difference of a country, looking at the deficits when there are more imports over export.

The data from capital flows focuses on the inflow of currency by domestic currency sold to foreign investors and flow of investments to the country.

Combining these two give you the balance of payments which is split to three: the current account that monitors the movement of services and goods between countries, the financial account that focuses on the monetary investments between countries and the capital account that focuses on the monetary exchange to purchase capital assets between countries.